Control of Diffuse Vacuum Arc Using Axial Magnetic Fields in Commercial High Voltage Switchgear
Keywords:high voltage, vacuum interrupter, vacuum arcs
AbstractDuring the development of a commercial vacuum interrupter for application in HV (high voltage) switchgear at a rated voltage of 145kV, we investigated the behavior of vacuum arcs controlled by axial magnetic fields (AMF). AMF arc control is already extensively used in medium voltage (1-52kV) applications, the key difference is the 2-3 times larger contact gap and the corresponding reduction of the AMF strength for HV applications. We conducted several stress tests with short circuit currents up to 40kA, thus not only testing the interrupting capability, but also the electrical endurance of such a contact system. We also investigated the dielectric behavior of the vacuum interrupter by testing the capacitive switching duty. Overall, the contacts were used in about 40 operations at high currents. Despite this large number of operations, they showed a minimal amount of contact erosion and damage and demonstrated behavior very similar to the extensive experience with MV vacuum interrupters. In line with simulation results, we conclude that even at high contact gaps and currents, a diffuse vacuum arc was maintained which distributed the arc energy evenly over the contacts.
P. G. Slade et al. The development of a vacuum interrupter retroﬁt for the upgrading and life extension of 121 kV–145 kV oil circuit breakers. IEEE Trans. Power Del., 6(3):1124/1131, 1991. doi:10.1109/61.85857.
L. Falkingham and M. Waldron. Vacuum for HV applications - perhaps not so new? - thirty years service experience of 132 kV vacuum circuit breaker. Proc. 22nd ISDEIV, 1:200–203, 2006. doi:10.1109/DEIV.2006.357267.
R. Smeets et al. The impact of the application of vacuum switchgear at transmission voltages. Cigre Working Group A3.27; Cigre Technical Report, (589), 2014.
R. Renz. High voltage vacuum interrupters - technical and physical feasibility versus economical eﬃciency. Proc. 22nd ISDEIV, 1:257–262, 2006. doi:10.1109/DEIV.2006.357281.
X. Godechot, S. Chakraborty, A. Girodet, and P. Vinson. Design and tests of vacuum interrupters for high voltage circuit breakers. Proc. 26th ISDEIV, 1:417–420, 2014. doi:10.1109/DEIV.2014.6961708.
Z. Liu, J. Wang, S. Xiu, Z. Wang, S. Yuan, L. Jin, H. Zhou, and R. Yang. Development of high-voltage vacuum circuit breakers in China. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci, 35(4):856–865, 2007. doi:10.1109/TPS.2007.896929.
J. Ryu, Y.-G. Kim, J. Choi, and S. Park. The experimental research of 170 kV VCB using single-break vacuum interrupter. Proc. 25th ISDEIV, 2:493–496, 2012. doi:10.1109/DEIV.2012.6412563.
X. Yao, J. Wang, Y. Geng, J. Yan, Z. Liu, J. Yao, and P. Liu. Development and type test of a single-break 126-kV/40-kA-2500-A vacuum circuit breaker. EEE
Trans. Power Del., 31(1):182, 2016. doi:10.1109/TPWRD.2015.2456033.
H. C. Ross. Vacuum power switches: 5 years of ﬁeld application and testing. Trans. AIEE Part III: Power App. Syst., 71:758, 1961. doi:10.1109/AIEEPAS.1961.4501132.
H. Urbanek, K. R. Venna, and N. Anger. Vacuum circuit breakers - promising switching technology for pumped storage power plants up to 450 MVA. Proc. ICEPE 4th Int. Conf. Electr. Power Equip. - Switching Technol., page 107, 2017.
S. Yanabu, S. Souma, T. Tamagawa, S. Yamashita, and T. Tsutsumi. Vacuum arc under an axial magnetic ﬁeld and its interrupting ability. Proc. IEE, 126(4):313, 1979. doi:10.1049/piee.1979.0079.
T. Bonicelli, A. DeLorenzi, D. Hrabal, R. Piovan, E. Saches, E. Sapietro, and S. R. Shaw. The European development of a full scale switching unit for the ITER switching and discharging networks. Fusion Eng. Design, 75:193, 2005. doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2005.06.225.
A. Zamengo. Operational experience of the 50 kA–35 kV RFX-mod DC-current interruption system. Proc. 28th ISDEIV, 2:543–546, 2018.
P. G. Slade. The Vacuum Interrupter: Theory Design and Application. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2008.
R. Renz. Vacuum Interrupters. In Vacuum Electronics: Components and Devices, chapter 8. Springer, 2008.
N. Wenzel, A. Lawall, U. Schümann, and S. Wethekam. Combined experimental and theoretical study of constriction threshold of large-gap AMF vacuum arcs. Proc. 26th ISDEIV, 1:193, 2014.
J. Kusserow and R. Renz. Method for opening the contact gap of a vacuum interrupter. U.S. Patent 7,334,319, 2008.
J. Yan, Z. Liu, Y. Geng, S. Zhang, and Y. Zhang. Investigation on X-radiation for 126 kV vacuum interrupters. Plasma Sci. Technol., 18(5):577, 2016. doi:10.1088/1009-0630/18/5/22.
J. Brucher, S. Giere, C. Watier, A. Hessenmüller, and P. E. Nielsen. 3AV1FG - 72.5 kV prototype vacuum circuit breaker (case study with pilot customers). 44th Int. Conf. Large High Voltage Electric Systems, A3:101, 2012.
S. Giere, T. Heinz, A. Lawall, C. Stiehler, E. D. Taylor, N. Wenzel, and S. Wethekam. X-radiation emission of high-voltage vacuum interrupters: Dose control under testing and operating conditions. Proc. 28th ISDEIV, pages 523–526, 2018.
W. Hartmann, A. Hauser, A. Lawall, R. Renz, and N. Wenzel. The 3D numerical simulation of a transient vacuum arc under realistic spatial AMF proﬁles. Proc. 24th ISDEIV, Braunschweig, 2:285–288, 2010. doi:10.1109/DEIV.2010.5625791.
N. Wenzel, S. Kosse, A. Lawall, R. Renz, and W. Hartmann. Numerical simulation of multi-component arcs in high-current vacuum interrupters. Proc. 25th ISDEIV, 2:321–324, 2012. doi:10.1109/DEIV.2012.6412518
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).