Experimental and numerical study of balcony effect in external fire spread into upper floors

Humberto José L. Morgado, Joao Paulo C. Rodrigues, Luis Miguel S. Laim


In this paper are presented the results of natural fire tests and numerical simulations using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and analytical simulations using the methods of EN 1991-1.2 (2010). The main goal of the investigation is the validation of the values of fire safety regulations on distance between openings corresponding to successive floors in a façade and the effect of dimensions of balconies in the external fire spread into upper floors. It is intended to quantify and measure the height and width of flames projected through the windows and to measure the indoor and outdoor temperatures. The tests were performed in a compartment that was intended to represent a small office with two opposing openings, a door and a window. The distance between the openings in the successive floors was1.10 m. The test 1 was carried out without any balcony above the opening and tests 2 and 3 had a balcony with different dimensions in length.

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