ANALYSES OF WASTE PRODUCTS OBTAINED BY LASER CUTTING OF AW-3103 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

Authors

  • Jan Loskot University of Hradec Králové, Department of Physics, Rokitanského 62, 500 03 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0172-4353
  • Maciej Zubko University of Silesia in Katowice, Institute of Materials Engineering, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1a, 41 500 Chorzów, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8987-3902
  • Zbigniew Janikowski “Silver” PPHU, ul. Rymera 4, 44 270 Rybnik, Poland

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14311/AP.2020.60.0469

Keywords:

Laser cutting, aluminium alloy, waste products, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction

Abstract

In the presented research, the methods of scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were applied to analyse the powder waste obtained by cutting of AW-3103 aluminium alloy using a fibre laser. The scanning electron microscopy allows to analyse the morphology of the waste microparticles, the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed their chemical composition, which was compared with the composition of the original cut material. In the waste powder, mainly plate-like particles were observed that contain almost pure aluminium. X-ray powder diffraction measurements confirmed that the waste powder is composed of aluminium phase with only a slight presence of other phases (magnetite, austenite and graphite) and the transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of nanoscale particles in this waste powder. Furthermore, it was found that the average size of the microparticles depends on the thickness of the cut material: particles obtained from a thicker workpiece were substantially bigger than those obtained from the thinner material. On the contrary, the dimensions of the workpiece have only a little impact on the particles’ shape and no significant influence on their chemical composition. The results also suggest that the microparticles could be used as an input material for powder metallurgy. But there is also a certain health risk connected with inhalation of such tiny particles, especially the nanoparticles, which can penetrate deep into the human pulmonary system.

References

A. K. Dubey, V. Yadava. Laser beam machining - A review. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 48(6):609 – 628, 2008. doi:10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2007.10.017.

L. Yang, J. Wei, Z. Ma, et al. The fabrication of micro/nano structures by laser machining.

Nanomaterials 9(12):1789, 2019. doi:10.3390/nano9121789.

D. Teixidor, J. Ciurana, C. Rodriguez. Dross formation and process parameters analysis of fibre laser cutting of stainless steel thin sheets. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 71(9 - 12):1611 – 1621, 2014. doi:10.1007/s00170-013-5599-0.

A. Amulevicius, K. Mazeika, C. Sipavicius. Oxidation of stainless steel by laser cutting. Acta Physica Polonica Series a 115:880 – 885, 2009. doi:10.12693/APhysPolA.115.880.

K. Krot, E. Chlebus, B. Kuznicka. Laser cutting of composite sandwich structures. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering 17(3):545 – 554, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.acme.2016.12.007.

A. Khan, J. Blackburn. Laser size reduction of radioactively contaminated structures. Journal of Laser Applications 30(3):032607, 2018. doi:10.2351/1.5040650.

A. Lisiecki, A. Kurc-Lisiecka. Automated laser welding of AISI 304 stainless steel by disk laser. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 63(4):1663 – 1672, 2018. doi:10.24425/amm.2018.125091.

Z. Brytan. The erosion resistance and microstructure evaluation of laser surface alloyed sintered stainless steels. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 63(4):2039 – 2049, 2018. doi:10.24425/amm.2018.125141.

B. S. Yilbas, B. J. A. Aleem. Dross formation during laser cutting process. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 39(7):1451 – 1461, 2006. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/39/7/017.

A. Riveiro, F. Quintero, F. Lusquiños, et al. Study of melt flow dynamics and influence on quality for CO2 laser fusion cutting. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 44(13):135501, 2011.

doi:10.1088/0022-3727/44/13/135501.

L. Lobo, K. Williams, J. Tyrer. The effect of laser processing parameters on the particulate generated during the cutting of thin mild steel sheet. Proceedings of The Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part C - journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 216(3):301 –

, 2002. doi:10.1243/0954406021525016.

R. Mercader, S. Marchetti, F. Bengoa, et al. Characterization of scraps produced by the industrial laser cutting of steels. Hyperfine Interactions 195(1 - 3):249 – 255, 2010. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-10764-1_38.

A. Lopez, E. Assunção, I. Pires, L. Quintino. Secondary emissions during fiber laser cutting of nuclear material. Nuclear Engineering and Design 315:69 – 76, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2017.02.012.

J. Souza, C. Motta, T. Machado, et al. Analysis of metallic waste from laser cutting for utilization in parts manufactured by conventional powder metallurgy. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science 4(11):1, 2016.

K. Elihn, P. Berg. Ultrafine particle characteristics in seven industrial plants. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene 53(5):475 – 484, 2009. doi:10.1093/annhyg/mep033.

T. Ferreira, W. Rasband. ImageJ User Guide: IJ 1.46r. ImageJ: Image Processing and Analysis in Java. https: //imagej.nih.gov/ij/docs/guide/user-guide.pdf, 2012. Accessed: 17 April 2019.

J. Powell, A. Ivarson, C. Magnusson. Laser cutting of steels: A physical and chemical analysis of the particles ejected during cutting. Part II. Journal of Laser Applications 5(1):25 – 31, 1993. doi:10.2351/1.4745321.

E. Cabanillas, M. Creus, R. Mercader. Microscopic spheroidal particles obtained by laser cutting. Journal of Materials Science 40(2):519 – 522, 2005. doi:10.1007/s10853-005-6118-y.

E. Cabanillas. Transmission electron microscopy observation of nanoparticles obtained by cutting power laser. Journal of Materials Science 39(11):3821 – 3823, 2004. doi:10.1023/B:JMSC.0000030748.97677.81.

Malvern Panalytical. Material characterization solutions for powder metallugy.

https://www.malvernpanalytical.com/en/assets/ MRK2319_tcm50-55142.pdf, 2017. Accessed: 18 September 2019.

J. Liu, J. Silveira, R. Groarke, et al. Effect of powder metallurgy synthesis parameters for pure aluminium on resultant mechanical properties. International Journal of Material Forming 12:79 – 87, 2019. doi:10.1007/s12289-018-1408-5.

D. Vallero. Fundamentals of air pollution. Academic Press, Waltham, 5th edn., 2014.

G. Yu, F. Wang, J. Hu, et al. Value assessment of health losses caused by PM2.5 in hangsha City, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(11):2063, 2019. doi:10.3390/ijerph16112063.

M. Elmes, M. Gasparon. Sampling and single particle analysis for the chemical characterisation of fine atmospheric particulates: A review. Journal of Environmental Management 202:137 – 150, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.06.067.

Aalco. Aluminium alloy 3103 h14 datasheet. http://www.aalco.co.uk/datasheets/

Aluminium-Alloy-3103-H14-Sheet_298.ashx, 2020. Accessed: 21 July 2020.

Downloads

Published

2020-12-31

Issue

Section

Articles