Simulation of laser drilling of Inconel X-750 and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn sheets using COMSOL
Keywords:laser drilling, modeling using COMSOL, Nd:YAG laser, Nickle alloys, Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy
This study aims to investigate the simulation of laser drilling processes on Inconel X-750 and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn sheets. To this end, COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 software was employed to carry out the virtual experiments. A JK 701 pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used for drilling through the entire depth of Inconel X-750 and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn plates with a thickness of 2 mm and 3 mm, using laser pulses of a millisecond in time. The laser parameters varied in different combinations for well-controlled drilling through the entire thickness of the plates. Effects of laser peak power (10-20 kW) and pulse duration (0.5-2.5 ms) have been determined via studying the temperature distribution on the cross-section of the images taken in the simulation tests. Characterizing the optimum conditions obtained from the combination of parameters that improve the hole quality is an essential objective in this paper. The results suggest that the hole's diameter and depth have increased linearly as the laser beam's peak power and pulse duration are elevated. An improvement in the hole's taper ratio (the best value is 0.72) was observed as the laser beam pulse duration was longer, since an isosceles trapezoid shape was formed instead of a conical. The pulse duration exhibited more impact on the crater depth progression than the peak power. This work's outcomes might be helpful for researchers in terms of the optimum parameters proposed when studying the laser drilling of the mentioned alloys experimentally. The procedure and findings of this study are not presented elsewhere.
K. Fisher, et al. Multi scale characterization of stress corrosion cracking of alloy X750. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1519(1002), 2013. https://doi.org/10.1557/opl.2012.1761.
A. Tazehkandi, et al. Experimental investigations of cutting parameters’ influence on cutting forces and surface roughness in turning of inconel alloy X-750 with biodegradable vegetable oil. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture 231(9):1516–1527, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954405415599914.
K. Sabareesaan, et al. Analysis of the effect of process parameters in electric discharge machining of inconel X750 using brass electrode. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology 3(9):1180–1184, 2014.
C. Bandapalli, et al. High speed machining of ti-alloys-A critical review. In 1st International and 16th National Conference on Machines and Mechanisms, iNaCoMM 2013, pp. 324–331. 2013.
N. Al-Mobarak, et al. Corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy in biological solution for dentistry applications. International Journal of Electrochemical Science 6(6):2031–2042, 2011.
J. Krčil, et al. The characterization of anodic oxide layers on selected bio-compatible titanium alloys. Acta Polytechnica 58(4):240–244, 2018. https://doi.org/10.14311/AP.2018.58.0240.
B. Zhang, et al. Strain-rate-dependent tensile response of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy. Materials 12(4):659, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040659.
K. Wei, et al. Selective laser melting of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn alloy with isotropic tensile properties: The combined effect of densification state, microstructural morphology, and crystallographic orientation characteristics. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 271:368–376, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.04.003.
T. Kozior. The influence of selected selective laser sintering technology process parameters on stress relaxation, mass of models, and their surface texture quality. 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing 7(3):126–138, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/3dp.2019.0036.
T. Kozior, et al. Waviness of freeform surface characterizations from austenitic stainless steel (316L) manufactured by 3D Printing-Selective Laser Melting (SLM) technology. Materials 13(19):4372, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194372.
Q. Zhang, et al. A study on film hole drilling of IN718 superalloy via laser machining combined with high temperature chemical etching. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 106:155–162, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-04541-0.
K. Aljanabi. Effect of high energy nd:glass laser on the drilled in the 5052 Al-Mg alloy. Iraqi Journal of Laser 18(2):35–40, 2019.
J. Collins, P. Gremaud. A simple model for laser drilling. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 81(8):1541–1552, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matcom.2010.07.010.
Fundamentals of laser-material interaction and application to multiscale surface modification. In Laser Precision Microfabrication, pp. 91–120. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-10523-4_4.
M. Hasan, et al. A review of modern advancements in micro drilling techniques. Journal of Manufacturing Processes 29:343–375, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2017.08.006.
Z. Taha. Hole drilling of high density polyethylene using Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Iraqi Journal of Laser 18(1):7–12, 2019.
A. Samant, et al. Computational approach to photonic drilling of silicon carbide. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 45:704–713, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-009-2004-0.
M. Hanon, et al. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the drilling of alumina ceramic using Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Optics & Laser Technology 44(4):913–922, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2011.11.010.
J. Verhoeven, et al. Modelling laser induced melting. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 37(3-4):419–437, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7177(03)00017-7.
K. Salonitis, et al. A theoretical and experimental investigation on limitations of pulsed laser drilling. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 183(1):96–103, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.09.031.
S. Akhtar, et al. Simulations and experiments on excimer laser micromachining of metal and polymer. Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS 13(1):013008, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JMM.13.1.013008.
Special metals corporation: INCONEL alloy X-750, 2004.
M. Khan, M. Rahman. Surface characteristics of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn in electrical discharge machining using negative polarity of electrode. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 92:1–13, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-0028-4.
K. Wei, et al. Preliminary investigation on selective laser melting of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn α-Ti alloy: From single tracks to bulk 3D components. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 244:73–85, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2017.01.032.
H. Qian. The zeroth law of thermodynamics and volume-preserving conservative system in equilibrium with stochastic damping. Physics Letters A 378(7-8):609–616, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physleta.2013.12.028.
W. Han. Computational and experimental investigations of laser drilling and welding for microelectronic packaging. Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Ma, USA, 2004.
O. Abdulghani, et al. Modeling and simulation of laser assisted turning of hard steels. Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science 3(4):106–113, 2013. https://doi.org/10.4236mnsms.2013.34014.
J. Deng, et al. The influence of wavelength-dependent absorption and temperature gradients on temperature determination in laser-heated diamond-anvil cells. Journal of Applied Physics 121(2):025901, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4973344.
S. Marinetti, P. Cesaratto. Emissivity estimation for accurate quantitative thermography. NDT & E International 51:127–134, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2012.06.001.
Y. Zhang, et al. Modeling and simulation on long pulse laser drilling processing. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 73:429–437, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.02.037.
D. Zhao, et al. Measurement techniques for thermal conductivity and interfacial thermal conductance of bulk and thin film materials. Journal of Electronic Packaging 138(4):040802, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4034605.
M. Gurav, et al. Quality evaluation of precision micro holes drilled using pulsed Nd:YAG laser on aerospace nickel-based superalloy. Materials Today: Proceedings 19(2):575–582, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.07.736.
R. Goyal, A. Dubey. Modeling and optimization of geometrical characteristics in laser trepan drilling of titanium alloy. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 30:1281–1293, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-016-0233-3.
Copyright (c) 2021 Muammel M. Hanon, Ziad A. Taha, László Zsidai
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.