Hydrothermally-calcined waste paper ash nanomaterial as an alternative to cement for clay soil modification for building purposes


  • Ubong Williams Robert Akwa Ibom State University, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Department of Physics, P.M.B. 1167, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Sunday Edet Etuk University of Uyo, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Okechukwu Ebuka Agbasi Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, College of Physical Science, Department of Physics, P.M.B. 7267, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria
  • Grace Peter Umoren Akwa Ibom State University, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Department of Physics, P.M.B. 1167, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Samuel Sunday Akpan Akwa Ibom State University, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Department of Physics, P.M.B. 1167, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • Lebe Agwu Nnanna Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, College of Physical Science, Department of Physics, P.M.B. 7267, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria




bulk density, building design, compressive strength, sorptivity, thermal conductivity


It has been observed that clay soil cannot be used for building design, unless it is modified by firing or with cement. Either method of stabilization can adversely affect the environment and public health just like indiscriminate dumping or open burning adopted in developing countries as the prevalent disposal technique for waste papers. This paper sought to examine the feasibility of using assorted waste papers to derive an alternative stabilizer to Portland Limestone Cement for modification of clay soil into composite materials suitable for building design. Specifically, clay-based composites were fabricated at 0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, and 20% replacement levels by weight with cement, and then hydrothermally-calcined waste paper ash nanomaterial (HCWPAN). Water absorption, sorptivity, bulk density, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, flaking concentration, flexural strength, and compressive strength were investigated for each of the fabricated samples. Irrespective of the stabilizing agent utilized, 10% loading level was found to be the optimum for possession of maximum mechanical strength by the samples. Only samples with the HCWPAN content were found to be capable of reducing building dead loads and improving thermal insulation efficiency over un-stabilized clay material, if applied as walling elements in buildings. Generally, it was revealed that the cement and HCWPAN have comparable influences on the properties of clay soil, thus indicating that HCWPAN could be utilized as an alternative stabilizer to cement. In addition, the preparation of HCWPAN was found to be more energy-saving than that of the cement.


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