The engineering performance of eco-friendly concretes containing diatomite fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag


  • Hüseyin Yilmaz Aruntaş Gazi University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, 06500 Ankara ,Turkey
  • Erkan Yildiz Eslem Consulting Engineering and Trade Limited Company, 06824 Ankara, Turkey
  • Gökhan Kaplan Atatürk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, 25030 Erzurum, Turkey



sustainability, diatomite, fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, eco-friendly concrete


Approximately 10 % of CO2 is emitted from an ordinary Portland cement production. In cement and concrete production, CO2 emissions can be greatly reduced by using Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs). In addition, the microstructure and durability properties of concrete are greatly improved when silica-rich SCMs are used. In this study, Eco-Friendly concrete design was carried out using three different SCMs. Diatomite, ground granulated blast furnace (GGBFS) and fly ash (FA) were used as the SCM in the concrete mixtures. SCMs were used instead of cement at ratios of 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt %. When diatomite was used at the rate of 20 %, the standard consistency water increased 1.7 times as compared to the reference mixture. With the increase in the replacement ratio, the final setting times of the pastes increased. The high active SiO2 content of diatomite shortened the initial setting time and increased the compressive strength. The use of 5 % diatomite reduced the slump value by 57 % as compared to the reference mixture. The slump and Ve-Be tests of GGBFS and FA mixtures showed similar properties to the reference mixture. The 28-day compressive strength of concrete varied between 29.2–34.6 MPa. With the increase in the curing time of the concrete mixtures, up to 50 % improvements were observed in the compressive strength. Especially on the 180th day, a compressive strength of 44.1 MPa was obtained in concrete mixtures with a 10 % replacement ratio. While using the FA in the mixtures improved the abrasion properties, the opposite result was observed in the case of the GGBFS. It was observed that the mixtures with 5 % FA showed the closest properties to the reference mixture. As a result, it was determined that SCMs with different properties could be used in environmentally friendly concrete mixtures by up to a 20 % replacement ratio.


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