Parametric study of the energy potential of a building’s envelope with integrated energy-active elements
Keywords:Building Structures with Integrated Energy-Active Elements (BSIEAE), Active Thermal Protection (ATP), Thermal Barrier (TB), Large-Scale Radiant Heating/Cooling (LSRHC), Heat/Cool Accumulation (HCA), Absorption of Solar and Ambient Energy, Thermally Activated Building Structure (TABS)
Building structures with integrated energy-active elements (BSIEAE) present a progressive alternative for building construction with multifunctional energy functions. The aim was to determine the energy potential of a building envelope with integrated energy-active elements in the function of direct-heating, semi-accumulation and accumulation of large-area radiant heating. The research methodology consists in an analysis of building structures with energy-active elements, creation of mathematical-physical models based on the simplified definition of heat and mass transfer in radiant large-area heating, and a parametric study of the energy potential of individual variants of technical solutions. The results indicate that the increase in heat loss due to the location of the tubes in the structure closer to the exterior is negligible for Variant II, semi-accumulation heating, and Variant III, accumulation heating, as compared to Variant I, direct heating, it is below 1 % of the total delivered heat flux. The direct heat flux to the heated room is 89.17 %, 73.36 %, and 58.46 % of the total heat flux for Variant I, Variant II and Variant III, respectively. For Variant II and Variant III, the heat storage accounts for 14.84 %, and 29.86 % of the total heat flux, respectively. Variants II and III appear to be promising in terms of heat/cool accumulation with an assumption of lower energy demand (at least 10 %) than for low inertia walls. We plan to extend these simplified parametric studies with dynamic computer simulations to optimise the design and composition of the panels with integrated energy-active elements.
D. Kalús, P. Páleš, Ľ. Pelachová. Samonosný tepelnoizolačný panel pre systémy s aktívnym riadením prechodu tepla. [Self-supporting thermal insulation panel for systems with active heat transfer control.] (Utility model No. SK 5729 Y1). Úrad priemyselného vlastníctva Slovenskej republiky, 2011. [2022-08-13], https://wbr.indprop.gov.sk/WebRegistre/UzitkovyVzor/Detail/5030-2010.
D. Kalús, P. Páleš, Ľ. Pelachová. Tepelnoizolačný panel pre systémy s aktívnym riadením prechodu tepla. [Thermal insulation panel for systems with active heat transfer control.] (Utility model No. SK 5725 Y1). Úrad priemyselného vlastníctva Slovenskej republiky, 2011. [2022-08-13], https://wbr.indprop.gov.sk/WebRegistre/UzitkovyVzor/Detail/5031-2010.
D. Kalús, P. Páleš, Ľ. Pelachová. Heat insulating panel with active regulation of heat transition (Patent No. EP 2 572 057 B1). European Patent Office, 2011. [2022-08-05], https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2011146025A1/und.
SUNOMAXCUBE. [2022-08-13], https://sunomaxcube.com/.
REHAU. [2022-08-13], https://www.rehau.com/sk-sk.
SUNOMAXCUBE. Individuality in series. [2022-08-13], https://sunomaxcube.com/files/sunomaxcube/sunomaxcube-en.pdf.
Isomax-Terrasol. [2022-08-13], http://www.isomax-terrasol.eu/home.html.
Rieder. [2022-08-13], https://www.rieder.cc/us/.
P. Michalak. Selected aspects of indoor climate in a passive office building with a thermally activated building system: A case study from Poland. Energies 14(4):860, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040860.
C. Zhang, M. Pomianowski, P. K. Heiselberg, T. Yu. A review of integrated radiant heating/cooling with ventilation systems- Thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Energy and Buildings 223:110094, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2020.110094.
X. Wu, L. Fang, B. W. Olesen, et al. Comparison of indoor air distribution and thermal environment for different combinations of radiant heating systems with mechanical ventilation systems. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology 39(1):81–97, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143624417710105.
M. Krajčík, O. Šikula. The possibilities and limitations of using radiant wall cooling in new and retrofitted existing buildings. Applied Thermal Engineering 164:114490, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.114490.
B. Lehmann, V. Dorer, M. Koschenz. Application range of thermally activated building systems tabs. Energy and Buildings 39(5):593–598, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.09.009.
M. Krajčík, M. Arıcı, O. Šikula, M. Šimko. Review of water-based wall systems: Heating, cooling, and thermal barriers. Energy and Buildings 253:111476, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2021.111476.
M. Schmelas, T. Feldmann, P. Wellnitz, E. Bollin. Adaptive predictive control of thermo-active building systems (TABS) based on a multiple regression algorithm: first practical test. Energy and Buildings 129:367–377, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.08.013.
K.-N. Rhee, K. W. Kim. A 50 year review of basic and applied research in radiant heating and cooling systems for the built environment. Building and Environment 91:166–190, 2015. Fifty Year Anniversary for Building and Environment, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.03.040.
J. Xie, X. Xu, A. Li, Q. Zhu. Experimental validation of frequency-domain finite-difference model of active pipe-embedded building envelope in time domain by using Fourier series analysis. Energy and Buildings 99:177–188, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.04.043.
F. Niu, Y. Yu. Location and optimization analysis of capillary tube network embedded in active tuning building wall. Energy 97:36–45, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.12.094.
M. Krzaczek, J. Florczuk, J. Tejchman. Improved energy management technique in pipe-embedded wall heating/cooling system in residential buildings. Applied Energy 254:113711, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113711.
T. Kisilewicz, M. Fedorczak-Cisak, T. Barkanyi. Active thermal insulation as an element limiting heat loss through external walls. Energy and Buildings 205:109541, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.109541.
R. Karadağ. New approach relevant to total heat transfer coefficient including the effect of radiation and convection at the ceiling in a cooled ceiling room. Applied Thermal Engineering 29(8):1561–1565, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.07.005.
M. Krzaczek, Z. Kowalczuk. Thermal barrier as a technique of indirect heating and cooling for residential buildings. Energy and Buildings 43(4):823–837, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.12.002.
C. Shen, X. Li. Energy saving potential of pipe-embedded building envelope utilizing low-temperature hot water in the heating season. Energy and Buildings 138:318–331, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.12.064.
B. V. Stojanović, J. N. Janevski, P. B. Mitković, et al. Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency. Thermal science 18(3):1011–1018, 2014. https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI1403011S.
Y. Yu, F. Niu, H.-A. Guo, D. Woradechjumroen. A thermo-activated wall for load reduction and supplementary cooling with free to low-cost thermal water. Energy 99:250–265, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.01.051.
J. Babiak, B. W. Olesen, D. Petras. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling. Embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems. Finnish Association of HVAC Societies FINVAC, 2009. [2022-08-05], https://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/biblio/1030138.
D. Petráš. Nízkoteplotní vytápění a obnovitelné zdroje energie. Bratislava. JAGA group, 2008. ISBN 978-80-8076-069-4.
D. Petráš, D. Kalús, D. Koudelková. Vykurovacie sústavy, cvičenie a ateliérová tvorba. STU, Bratislava, 2012. ISBN 978-80-227-3795-1.
P. Janík. Optimization of energy systems with long-term heat accumulation. Ph.D. thesis, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 2013. SvF-13422-16657.
European Committee for Standardization. Heating systems in buildings - Design of embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems - Part 1: Determination of the design heating and cooling capacity (Standard No. EN 15377-1:2008).
Úrad pre normalizáciu, metrológiu a skúšobníctvo SR. Thermal protection of buildings. Thermal performance of buildings and components. Part 2: Functional requirements (Standard No. STN 73 0540-2+Z1+Z2).
M. Šimko, M. Krajčík, O. Šikula, et al. Insulation panels for active control of heat transfer in walls operated as space heating or as a thermal barrier: Numerical simulations and experiments. Energy and Buildings 158:135–146, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.10.019.
B. Ning, S. Schiavon, F. S. Bauman. A novel classification scheme for design and control of radiant system based on thermal response time. Energy and Buildings 137:38–45, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.12.013.
S. A. Al-Sanea, M. Zedan, S. Al-Hussain. Effect of thermal mass on performance of insulated building walls and the concept of energy savings potential. Applied Energy 89(1):430–442, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.08.009.
M. Schmelas, T. Feldmann, P. Wellnitz, E. Bollin. Adaptive predictive control of thermo-active building systems (TABS) based on a multiple regression algorithm: First practical test. Energy and Buildings 129:367–377, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.08.013.
E. Nemethova, D. Petras, M. Krajcik. Indoor environment in a high-rise building with lightweight envelope and thermally active ceiling. In CLIMA 2016: Proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress, vol. 22. 2016.
J. Široký, F. Oldewurtel, J. Cigler, S. Prívara. Experimental analysis of model predictive control for an energy efficient building heating system. Applied Energy 88(9):3079–3087, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.03.009.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Daniel Kalús , Daniela Koudelková, Veronika Mučková, Martin Sokol, Mária Kurčová, Patrik Šťastný
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.